References and Citations

A wild gift for a beaver patient at the Wildlife Center of Virginia.

Annotated Bibliography

Burrows, G.E., Tyrl, R.J. (2013) Toxic Plants of North America, 2nd Edition, Oxford, U.K.: John Wiley & Sons,  Inc.

  • This is a very readable, but very large and expensive comprehensive review of what is known about harmful plant effects on animals and humans. You might find a copy at a university library. Readable by a layperson, but suitable for a veterinarian as well. It was recommended to me by medical toxicologist, Sandra James-Yi, DVM, PhD, DABT, DABT, and she could not have hooked  me up with a better source.

Elpel, T.J. (2013) Botany in a Day (APG). Pony, Montana: Hops Press, LLC.

  • Thomas Elpel has given the world a tremendous gift with this wonderful teaching tool to help us start to get a handle on the relationships between plants at the family level, and he identifies the most salient identification features that bind different plants into a family, so you can learn how to meet an unknown plant in the wild and figure what family it belongs to. My hero.

Foster, S., Caras, R. A. (1994) A Field Guide to Venomous Animals and Poisonous Plants, North America and North of Mexico. Boston:  Houghton Mifflin Company.

  • I make a point at this website to remind you that this website lists which ANIMALS eat plants, and that this should NOT be construed to mean that any given plant is necessarily safe for HUMANS to eat. This book is part of the Peterson Guides and  is my go-to source for knowing which plants are poisonous to HUMANS and is a good companion to the Peterson’s Edible Wild Plants of Eastern and Central North America.

Harris, J.G.& Harris M.W. (1997) Plant Identification Terminology, An Illustrated Glossary.  Spring Lake, Utah: Spring Lake Publishing.

  • The language of botany can drive otherwise bright folks to distraction. This is a picture book of botanical parts naming that makes hard- to-describe plant anatomy almost instantly understandable.

Martin, A.C., Zim, H.S., Nelson, A.L. (1951). American Wildlife and Plants: A Guide to Wildlife Food Habits. New York: Dover Publications.

  • This book is the root of this project. When I discovered this book, I realized the wealth of info contained in its pages, and also realized the difficulty of accessing this info in a 21rst century since this book was written in the heyday of naturalist-study popularity—the 1950’s. If wildlife food is your thing, make sure you get a copy of this book.

McDorman, B. (1994 ) Basic Seed Saving. Ketchum, ID: Rocky Mountain Seed Alliance.

  • Bill McDorman and Belle Starre are on an admirable and necessary mission to preserve plant species diversity worldwide by promoting a non-centralized seed saving and seed banking . If you can make the time for yourself to take Bill’s seed saving webinars, they are very worthwhile and comprehensive. Cool people, critical work.

 Newcomb, L. (1977). Newcomb’s Wildflower Guide. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.

  • Lawrence Newcomb has created an incredibly useful wildflower ID guide that is always the first key I pick up for non-woody wild plants. The key has a unique, easy to learn method that quickly gets you to an identification more times than not. For the vast majority of wildflower ID you want to do in Virginia, the combination of Peterson’s  and Newcomb’s Guides will get you there. Yep, he’s a hero.

Peterson, L.A. (1977). A Field Guide to Edible Wild Plants of Eastern and Central North America. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.

  • I make a point at this website to remind you that this website lists which ANIMALS eat plants, and that this should NOT be construed to mean that any given plant is necessarily safe for HUMANS to eat. But if you do want to explore wild HUMAN edible plants, this Peterson guide is my go-to source.

Peterson, R.T., McKenny, M. (1968). Wildflowers: Northeastern/North-central North America. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.

  • Peterson’s  Guides are one of the gold standard of plant identification and ethnobotanical use. For the vast majority of wildflower ID you want to do in Virginia, the combination of Peterson’s  and Newcomb’s Guides will get you there.

Scott, M. (2013). Songbird Diet Index. National Wildlife Rehabilitators Association, St. Cloud, MN.

  • Marcy Scott’s book is the second leg of the 3-legged stool that led to the creation of this website.  She compiled a comprehensive listing of the plants that birds eat. Her book is used extensively by rehabilitators and goes beyond wild plants to include commercial grocery items and commercial and wild insects that make up rehab patient diets. A treasure.

Thayer, S. (2010). Nature’s Garden: A Guide to Identifying, Harvesting and Preparing Edible Wild Plants. Birchwood, Wisconsin: Forager’s Harvest Press.

  • Once the wild foraging bug grabs you, you might as well go straight to Samual Thayer’s in-depth and deeply nature-connected books. A true master in the foraging world! His writing is very inspiring! He now has 3 books total. A master plant hero.

Virginia Department of Forestry (2009). Common Native Trees of Virginia: Tree Identification Guide. VDOF P00026.

Virginia Department of Forestry (2014). Common Native Shrubs and Woody Vines of Virginia: Identification Guide. VDOF P00027.

  • These two books the DOF has created are so affordably priced and are such straightforward guides to Virginia trees and shrubs that I’d advise any Virginia naturalist to include them in their library. I turn to them often. Have decision keys.

Townsend, J. F. (2015, April)  Rare Plants Natural Heritage Technical Report 15-10.                  (Unpublished Report) Richmond, Virginia: Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage.

  • Townsend is a heavyweight in the botany world in Virginia and beyond. In addition to this technical listing of the threatened and endangered status of wild plants of Virginia, he is a co-author of the definitive Flora of Virginia.

Weakly, A.S., Ludwig, J.C., & Townsend, J.F. (2012) Flora of Virginia. Fort Worth, Texas: Botanical Research Institute of Texas Press.

  • This is THE definitive and scholarly final word in the plant census of Virginia, and all you could want to know about each species. However, arm yourself with a good botanical dictionary if you intend to even touch this book. This is a professional botanical resource—a novice stumper. But do familiarize yourself with this amazing and relatively new resource. Check to see if your library has a copy.

Personal Communications

James-Yi, S. DVM, PhD, DABT, DABT. (2017, September) Personal interview with medical toxicologist at NOW Foods. Sandra James-Yi.

Hurst de Mazariegos, J. (2016, December) Personal interview with natural nutrition coach Janelle Hurst de Mazariegos.

Van Wick, P. DVM, MS. (2017, July)  Personal communication with the Research Fellow at the Wildlife Center of Virginia.

Website Citations:

Aikman, Kevin E.,(1987, January 1)  Cyanogenic Plants of Illinois. Masters Theses. 2580. Retrieved July 17, 2017 from http://thekeep.eiu.edu/theses/2580

Canadian Poison Plants Information System. (n.d.) Retrieved on 8/6/17 from the Canadian Biodiversity  Information Facility at http://www.cbif.gc.ca/eng/species-bank/canadian-poisonous-plants-information-system/canadian-poisonous-plants-information-system/?id=1370403266275

Cortinovis, C.,  Caloni, F. (2016) Household Food Items Toxic to Dogs and Cats. Front. Vet. Sci. 3:26. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2016.00026 https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fvets.2016.00026/full

Douglas, S.M. (2015, April)  Pruning: An introduction to why, how and when. The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station. Retrieved January 6, 2017  from http;//www.ct.gov/caes

Douglas, S.M. (2004, September)  Plants reported to cause dermatitis. The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station. Retrieved January 6, 2017  from http;//www.ct.gov/caes

Douglas, S.M. (2008, June)  Poisonous plants. The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station. Retrieved January 6, 2017  from http;//www.ct.gov/caes

Fire Effects Information System (2017) Plant species ecology literature reviews. Retrieved various dates from https://www.feis-crs.org/feis/

  • “The Fire Effects Information System is an online collection of reviews of the scientific literature about fire effects on plants and animals and about fire regimes of plant communities in the United States. FEIS reviews are based on thorough literature searches, often supplemented with insights from field scientists and managers. FEIS provides reviews that are efficient to use, thoroughly documented, and defensible.” See below for individual citations.

 Goldenrod (n.d.). Retrieved on December 2, 2015 from http://www.discoverlife.org/

Hilty, J. (2002).White clover. Retrieved March 1, 2017 from http://www.illinoiswildflowers.info/weeds/plants/white_clover.htm

Ling, H. & Ling, M. (2014, April 13). Lindera benzoin– Spicebush [Web log post]. Retrieved 3/24/16 from http://www.npsnj.org/photo_galleries/photo_pages/lindera_benzoin.html.

McPeake, R. (2012). Grasses and Forbs for Fall and Winter Wildlife Food Plots  University of Arkansas Cooperative Extension Service Printing Services..Retrieved 6/12/17 from https://www.uaex.edu/publications/pdf/FSA-9096.pdf

Plants Poisonous to Livestock (n.d.) Retrieved August 8, 2017 from Cornell University College of Agricultural and Life Sciences  Department of Animal Science at http://poisonousplants.ansci.cornell.edu/alphalist.html.

Provin, T.L., Pitt, J.L. (n.d.) Nitrates and Prussic Acid in Forages. Texas A&M AgriLife Communications. Retrieved October 1, 2017 from http:///forages.tamu.edu/PDF/Nitrate.pdf

Stoltenow, C. & Lardy, G. (2012, September) Cyanide Poisoning. Retrieved March 22, 2017 from https://www.ag.ndsu.edu/pubs/ansci/livestoc/v1150.pdf

Stoltenow, C. & Lardy, G.  (2015, March) Nitrate Poisoning of Livestock. North Dakota State University. Retrieved August 1,2017 from https://www.ag.ndsu.edu/publications/livestock/nitrate-poisoning-of-livestock

USDA, NRCS. (2015). The PLANTS Database, National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC 27401-4901 USA. Retrieved on a variety of dates  from 2015-2017 from http://plants.usda.gov

Virginia Botanical Associates. (2015). Digital Atlas of the Virginia Flora, c/o Virginia Botanical Associates, Blacksburg.  Retrieved a variety of dates between 2015-2017 from http://www.vaplantatlas.org).

Wikipedia contributors.  “Ergotism” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, viewed 13 October, 2017.  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ergotism

Wikipedia contributors.  “Grass Tetany” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, viewed 13 October, 2017.  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grass_tetany

Wikipedia contributors.  “Precautionary Principle” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, viewed 13 October, 2017.  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Precautionary_principle

Wikipedia contributors.  “Stringhalt” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, viewed 13 October, 2017.  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stringhalt

WikiVet contributors.  “Photosensitizantion” WikiVet, viewed 13 October, 2017. http: www.wikivet.net

Citations from FEIS On-Line

Fire Effects Information System, [On-line].

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service

Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Science Laboratory (Producer)

http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/[date]

 

The following citations are listed alphabetically by common plant name.

 

Alder, Gray Alnus incana Fryer, Janet L. 2011. Alnus incana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, November 15].
Alfalfa Medicago sativa Sullivan, Janet. 1992. Medicago sativa. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/medsat/all.html [2016, November 15].
Ash, Black Fraxinus nigra Gucker, Corey L. 2005. Fraxinus nigra. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 9].
Ash, Green Fraxinus pennsylvanica Gucker, Corey L. 2005. Fraxinus pennsylvanica. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/tree/frapen/all.html [2016, November 14].
Ash, White Fraxinus americana Griffith, Randy Scott. 1991. Fraxinus americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, November 14].
Aspen, Quaking Populus tremuloides Howard, Janet L. 1996. Populus tremuloides. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/tree/poptre/all.html [2016, November 18].
Avens Geum spp. Munger, Gregory T. 2006. Geum triflorum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, November 18].
Baneberry, Red Actaea rubra Crane, M. F. 1990. Actaea rubra. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, November 29].
Barberry, Common Berberis vulgaris Gucker, Corey L. 2009. Berberis vulgaris. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, November 18].
Barberry, Japanese Berberis thunbergii Zouhar, Kris. 2008. Berberis thunbergii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, November 18].
Basswood Tilia americana Sullivan, Janet. 1994. Tilia americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, November 18].
Bay, Sweet Magnolia virginiana Gucker, Corey L. 2008. Magnolia virginiana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 16].
Bayberry, Northern Myrica pensylvanica Hauser, A. Scott. 2006. Myrica pensylvanica. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, November 14].
Bear, American Black Ursus americanus Ulev, Elena. 2007. Ursus americanus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/animals/mammal/uram/all.html [2016, December 26].
Beautyberry, American Callicarpa americana Coladonato, Milo. 1992. Callicarpa americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, November 18].
Beautyberry, American Callicarpa americana Virginia Society of Ornithology Facebook Post
https://www.facebook.com/Virginia-Society-of-Ornithology-255442192640/?fref=ts
Viewed 1/10/2017
Beaver, American Castor cabadensis Tesky, Julie L. 1993. Castor canadensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 26].
Beetleweed Galax urceolata League, Kevin R. 2006. Galax urceolata. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 9].
Bittersweet, Climbing Solanum dulcamara Waggy, Melissa A. 2009. Solanum dulcamara. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 23].
Bittersweet, Oriental Celastrus orbiculatus Fryer, Janet L. 2011. Celastrus orbiculatus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/vine/celorb/all.html [2016, November 20].
Blackberry, Evergreen Rubus laciniatus Tirmenstein, D. 1989. Rubus laciniatus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, November 20].
Blueberry, Blue Ridge Vaccinium pallidum Tirmenstein, D. A. 1991. Vaccinium pallidum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, November 21].
Blueberry, Highbush Vaccinium corymbosum Uchytil, Ronald J. 1993. Vaccinium corymbosum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, November 21].
Blueberry, Lowbush Vaccinium angustifolium Tirmenstein, D. A. 1991. Vaccinium angustifolium. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, November 21].
Blueberry, Velvetleaf Vaccinium myrtilloides Tirmenstein, D. 1990. Vaccinium myrtilloides. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, November 21].
Bluegrass, Bulbous Poa bulbosa Gucker, Corey L. 2007. Poa bulbosa. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, November 29].
Bluegrass, Canada Poa compressa Uchytil, Ronald J. 1993. Poa compressa. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, November 29].
Bluegrass, Kentucky Poa pratensis Uchytil, Ronald J. 1993. Poa pratensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, November 22].
Box Turtle, Eastern Terrapene carolina Luensmann, Peggy S. 2006. Terrapene carolina. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 26].
Boxelder Acer negundo Rosario, Lynn C. 1988. Acer negundo. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available:
http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/tree/aceneg/all.html [2016, November 23].
Brome, Fringed Bromus ciliatus Esser, Lora L. 1994. Bromus ciliatus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, November 23].
Brome, Smooth Bromus inermis Howard, Janet L. 1996. Bromus inermis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available:
http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/graminoid/broine/all.html [2016, November 23].
Buckthorn, Common Rhamnus catharica Zouhar, Kris. 2011. Rhamnus cathartica, R. davurica. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, November 23].
Buffaloberry, Canada Shepherdia canadensis Walkup, Crystal J. 1991. Shepherdia canadensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available:
http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/shecan/all.html [2016, December 26].
Bulrush, Olney’s Threesquare Schoenoplectus americanus Uchytil, Ronald J. 1992. Schoenoplectus americanus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, November 27].
Bulrush, Saltmarsh Bolboschoenus robustus Snyder, S. A. 1991. Bolboschoenus robustus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, November 27].
Bunchberry Cornus canadensis Gucker, Corey L. 2012. Cornus canadensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 5].
Burningbush, Winged Euonymus alatus Fryer, Janet L. 2009. Euonymus alatus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/euoala/all.html [2016, December 8].
Butternut Juglans cinerea Coladonato, Milo 1991. Juglans cinerea. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2017, January 12].
Buttonbush Cephalanthus occidentalis Snyder, S. A. 1991. Cephalanthus occidentalis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 4].
Cattail, Broadleaf Typha latifolia Gucker, Corey L. 2008. Typha latifolia. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 25].
Cattail, Narrowleaf Typha angustifolia Snyder, S. A. 1993. Typha angustifolia. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 25].
Cherry, Black Prunus serotina Uchytil, Ronald J. 1991. Prunus serotina. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 20].
Cherry, Pin Prunus pensylvanica Anderson, Michelle D. 2004. Prunus pensylvanica. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 20].
Chinkapin Castanea pumila Sullivan, Janet. 1994. Castanea pumila. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 3].
Chokecherry, Common Prunus virginiana Johnson, Kathleen A. 2000. Prunus virginiana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/tree/pruvir/all.html [2016, December 20].
Clover, White Trifolium repens Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Trifolium repens. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station,
Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available:
http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/trirep/all.html [2016, December 24].
Cordgrass, Saltmarsh Spartina patens Walkup, Crystal J. 1991. Spartina patens. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 23].
Cordgrass, Smooth Spartina alterniflora Walkup, C. J. 1991. Spartina alterniflora. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 23].
Cottongrass, Tussock Eriophorum vaginatum Innes, Robin J. 2014. Eriophorum vaginatum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Missoula Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/graminoid/erivag/all.html [2016, December 8].
Cottontail, Eastern Sylvilagus floridanus Sullivan, Janet. 1995. Sylvilagus floridanus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 27].
Cottonwood, Eastern Populus deltoides Taylor, Jennifer L. 2001. Populus deltoides. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, November 29].
Cowparsnip, Common Hercleum maximum Esser, Lora L. 1995. Heracleum maximum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 12].
Coyote Canis latrans Tesky, Julie L. 1995. Canis latrans. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station,
Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available:
http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/animals/mammal/cala/all.html [2016, December 25].
Cranberry, Mountain Vaccinium vitis-idaea Tirmenstein, D. 1991. Vaccinium vitis-idaea. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2017, January 4].
Cranberry, Small Vaccinium oxycoccos Matthews, Robin F. 1992. Vaccinium oxycoccos. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, November 21].
Cranesbill, Bicknell’s Geranium bicknelii Reeves, Sonja L. 2007. Geranium bicknellii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 12].
Crowberry, Black Empetrum nigrum Matthews, Robin F. 1992. Empetrum nigrum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 7].
Currant, American Black Ribes americanum Marshall, K. Anna. 1995. Ribes americanum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 22].
Currant, Prickly Ribes lacustre Carey, Jennifer H. 1995. Ribes lacustre. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 22].
Cypress, Bald Taxodium distichum Coladonato, Milo 1992. Taxodium distichum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, November 18].
Dandelion, Common Taraxacum officinale Esser, Lora L. 1993. Taraxacum officinale. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/taroff/all.html [2016, December 24].
Deer, White-tailed Odocoileus virginianus Innes, Robin J. 2013. Odocoileus virginianus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/animals/mammal/odvi/all.html [2016, December 27].
Devil’s Tongue Opuntia humifusa Taylor, Jane. 2005. Opuntia humifusa. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 14].
Devil’s Walkingstick Aralia spinosa Sullivan, Janet. 1992. Aralia spinosa. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, November 30].
Dogwood, Alternate Leaf Cornus alternifolia Coladonato, Milo. 1994. Cornus alternifolia. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 5].
Dogwood, Flowering Cornus florida Tirmenstein, D. A. 1991. Cornus florida. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/corflo/all.html [December 5]
Dogwood, Gray Cornus racemosa Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Cornus racemosa. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 5].
Dogwood, Red-osier Cornus sericea Gucker, Corey. 2012. Cornus sericea. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/corser/all.html [2016, December 5].
Dropseed Grass, Composite Sprobolus compositus Meyer, Rachelle. 2010. Sporobolus compositus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 23].
Elderberry, American Black Sambucus nigra Crane, M. F. 1989. Sambucus nigra subsp. cerulea. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/samnig/all.html [2016, December 22].
Elderberry, Red Sambucus racemosa Fryer, Janet L. 2008. Sambucus racemosa. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 22].
Elk, Rocky Mountain Cervus elaphus Innes, Robin J. 2011. Cervus elaphus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 27].
Elm, American Ulmus americana Coladonato, Milo. 1992. Ulmus americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 25].
Elm, Slippery Ulmus rubra Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Ulmus rubra. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 25].
Farkleberry Vaccinium arboreum Tirmenstein, D. A. 1991. Vaccinium arboreum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, November 21].
Fescue, Red Festuca rubra Walsh, Roberta A. 1995. Festuca rubra. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station,
Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available:
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, November 21].
Fir, Fraser Abies fraseri Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Abies fraseri. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, November 29].
Fisher Pekania pennanti Meyer, Rachelle. 2007. Pekania pennanti. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, 25].
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/animals/mammals/pepe/all.html [2016, December 1].
Fox, Gray Urocyon cinereoargenteus Sullivan, Janet. 1996. Urocyon cinereoargenteus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/animals/mammal/urci/all.html [2016, December 27].
Fox, Red Vulpes vulpes Tesky, Julie L. 1995. Vulpes vulpes. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/animals/mammal/vuvu/all.html [2016, December 27].
Gallberry, Large Ilex coriacea Coladonato, Milo 1991. Ilex coriacea. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 15].
Geranium, Spotted Geranium maculatum Sullivan, Janet. 1992. Geranium maculatum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 12].
Goldenrod, Canada Soldiago canadensis Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Solidago canadensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station,
Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available:
http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/solcan/all.html [2016, December 23].
Goldthread, Threeleaf Coptis trifolia Sullivan, Janet. 1992. Coptis trifolia. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 5].
Greenbrier, Laurel Smilax laurifolia Van Deelen, Timothy R. 1991. Smilax laurifolia. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 23].
Greenbrier, Roundleaf Smilax rotundifolia Carey, Jennifer H. 1994. Smilax rotundifolia. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 23].
Greenbrier, Saw Smilax bona-nox Sullivan, Janet. 1994. Smilax bona-nox. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 23].
Hackberry, Common Celtis occidentalis Gucker, Corey L. 2011. Celtis occidentalis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 3].
Hare, Snowshoe Lepus americanus Sullivan, Janet. 1995. Lepus americanus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2017, January 13].
Hawkweed, orange Hieracium aurantiacum Stone, Katharine R. 2010. Hieracium aurantiacum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/hieaur/all.html [2016, December 12].
Hawkweed, Meadow Hieracium caespitosum Stone, Katharine R. 2011. Hieracium caespitosum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/hiecae/all.html [2016, December 12].
Hazelnut, American Corylus americana Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Corylus americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/corame/all.html [2016, December 6].
Hazelnut, Beaked Corylus cornuta Fryer, Janet L. 2007. Corylus cornuta. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 6].
Hemlock, Carolina Tsuga caroliniana Coladonato, Milo 1993. Tsuga caroliniana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 25].
Hemlock, Eastern Tsuga canadensis Carey, Jennifer H. 1993. Tsuga canadensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 25].
Hickory, Bitternut Carya cordiformis Coladonato, Milo. 1992. Carya cordiformis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 2].
Hickory, Pignut Carya glabra Tirmenstein, D. A. 1991. Carya glabra. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 2].
Holly, American Ilex opaca Coladonato, Milo. 1991. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 15].
Holly, Carolina Ilex ambigua Sullivan, Janet. 1994. Ilex ambigua. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 15].
Honey Locust Gleditsia triacanthos Sullivan, Janet. 1994. Gleditsia triacanthos. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 28].
Honeysuckle, Japanese Lonicera japonica Munger, Gregory T. 2002. Lonicera japonica. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 15].
Honeysuckle spp. Lonicera spp. Munger, Gregory T. 2005. Lonicera spp. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/lonspp/all.html [2016, December 16].
Hophornbeam, Eastern Ostrya virginiana Coladonato, Milo 1992. Ostrya virginiana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 17].
Hornbeam, American Carpinus caroliniana Sullivan, Janet. 1994. Carpinus caroliniana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 2].
Huckleberry, Black Gaylussacia baccata Gucker, Corey L. 2006. Gaylussacia baccata. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 9].
Huckleberry, Blue Gaylussacia frondosa Carey, Jennifer H. 1994. Gaylussacia frondosa. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 9].
Huckleberry, Dwarf Gaylussacia dumosa Coladonato, Milo 1992. Gaylussacia dumosa. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 9].
Inkberry Ilex glabra Anderson, Michelle D. 2001. Ilex glabra. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 15].
Juniper, Common Juniperus communis Tirmenstein, D. 1999. Juniperus communis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 15].
Knotweed, Prostrate Polygonum aviculare Stone, Katharine R. 2010. Polygonum aviculare. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2017, January 17].
Knotweed spp. Polygonum spp.
Stone, Katharine R. 2010. Polygonum sachalinense, P. cuspidatum, P. × bohemicum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2017, January 17].
Laurel, Mountain Kalmia latifolia League, Kevin R. 2005. Kalmia latifolia. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available:http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, November 29].
Laurel, Great Rhododendron maximum Anderson, Michelle D. 2008. Rhododendron maximum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, November 29].
Leatherleaf Chamaedaphne calyculata Pavek, Diane S. 1993. Chamaedaphne calyculata. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 4].
Lespedeza, Sericea Lespedeza cuneata
Gucker, Corey. 2010. (Revised from Munger, Gergory T., 2004). Lespedeza cuneata. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 15].
Lespedeza, Shrub Lespedeza bicolor Gucker, Corey L. 2010. Lespedeza bicolor. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available:http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 15].
Lily-of-the-valley, Starry False Maianthemum stellatum Habeck, R. J. 1992. Maianthemum stellatum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire
Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/
[2016, December 16].
Locust, Black Robinia pseudoacacia Stone, Katharine R. 2009. Robinia pseudoacacia. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 22].
Lupine, Sundial Lupinus perennis Meyer, Rachelle. 2006. Lupinus perennis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 29].
Maidencane Panicum hemitomom Walsh, Roberta A. 1994. Panicum hemitomon. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 17].
Magnolia, Southern Magnolia grandiflora Coladonato, Milo. 1991. Magnolia grandiflora. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 16].
Maple, Mountain Acer spicatum Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Acer spicatum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, November 28].
Maple, Red Acer rubrum Tirmenstein, D. A. 1991. Acer rubrum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, November 28].
Maple, Silver Acer saccharinum Sullivan, Janet. 1994. Acer saccharinum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, November 28].
Maple, Striped Acer pensylvanicum Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Acer pensylvanicum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, November 28].
Maple, Sugar Acer saccharum Tirmenstein, D. A. 1991. Acer saccharum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, November 28].
Mayflower Maianthemum canadense Pavek, Diane S. 1993. Maianthemum canadense. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, November 14].
Mayflower Maianthemum stellatum Habeck, R. J. 1992. Maianthemum stellatum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, November 14].
Moose Alces americanus Innes, Robin J. 2010. Alces americanus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 27].
Mountain Ash, American Sorbus americana Sullivan, Janet. 1992. Sorbus americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 24].
Mouse, Deer Peromyscus maniculatus Sullivan, Janet. 1995. Peromyscus maniculatus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 25].
Mulberry, Red Morus rubra Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Morus rubra. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 16].
Mulberry, White Morus alba Stone, Katharine R. 2009. Morus alba. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 16].
Muskrat, Common Ondatra zibethicus Snyder, S. A. 1993. Ondatra zibethicus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 25].
Myrtle, Wax Morella cerifera Van Deelen, Timothy R. 1991. Myrica cerifera. In: Fire Effects Information
System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, November 14].
New Jersey Tea Ceanothus americanus Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Ceanothus americanus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 3].
Oak, Bear Quercus ilicifolia Gucker, Corey L. 2006. Quercus ilicifolia. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 20].
Oak, Black Quercus velutina Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Quercus velutina. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 20].
Oak, Bluejack Quercus incana Sullivan, Janet. 1994. Quercus incana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2017, January 14].
Oak, Chestnut Quercus prinus Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Quercus prinus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 20].
Oak, Chinkapin Quercus muelenbergii Tirmenstein, D. A. 1991. Quercus muehlenbergii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 20].
Oak, Northern Red Quercus rubra Tirmenstein, D. A. 1991. Quercus rubra. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 20].
Oak, Overup Quercus lyrata Sullivan, Janet. Quercus lyrata. 1993. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 20].
Oak, Pin Quercus palustris Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Quercus palustris. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 20].
Oak, Post Quercus stellata Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Quercus stellata. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 20].
Oak, Scarlet Quercus coccinea Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Quercus coccinea. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 20].
Oak, Shumard Quercus shumardii Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Quercus shumardii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 20].
Oak, Southern Red Quercus falcata Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Quercus falcata, Q. pagoda. In: Fire Effects
Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest
Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 20].
Oak, Southern Live Quercus virginiana Carey, Jennifer, H. 1992. Quercus virginiana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 20].
Oak, Swamp Chestnut Quercus michauxii Snyder, S. A. 1992. Quercus michauxii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 20].
Oak, Swamp White Quercus bicolor Snyder, S. A. 1992. Quercus bicolor In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 20].
Oak, Turkey Querus laevis Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Quercus laevis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 28].
Oak, Water Quercus nigra Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Quercus nigra. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 20].
Oak,White Quercuc alba Tirmenstein, D. A. 1991. Quercus alba. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 20].
Oak, Willow Quercus phellos Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Quercus phellos. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 20].
Olive, Russian Elaeagnus angustifolia Zouhar, Kris. 2005. Elaeagnus angustifolia. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 7].
Olive, Autumn Elaeagnus umbellata Munger, Gregory T. 2003. Elaeagnus umbellata. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 7].
Orchardgrass, Ascherson’s Dactylis glomerata Sullivan, Janet. 1992. Dactylis glomerata. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station,
Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available:
http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/graminoid/dacglo/all.html [2016, December 6].
Oriental Lady’s Thumb Persicaria longiseta Stone, Katharine R. 2010. Persicaria longiseta. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [ 2017, January 17].
Osage Orange Maclura pomifera Carey, Jennifer H. 1994. Maclura pomifera. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 14].
Palmetto, Cabbage Sabal palmetto Van Deelen, Timothy R. 1991. Sabal palmetto. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 22].
Partridgeberry Mitchella repens Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Mitchella repens. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 14].
Partridge Pea Chamaecrista fasciculata Tesky, Julie L. 1992. Chamaecrista fasciculata. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis//plants/forb/chafas/all.html [2016, December 4].
Pawpaw Asimina triloba Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Asimina triloba. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 1].
Pecan Carya illinoinensis Coladonato, Milo. 1992. Carya illinoinensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 2].
Persimmon, Common Diospyros virginiana Coladonato, Milo 1992. Diospyros virginiana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 6].
Pine, Jack Pinus banksiana Carey, Jennifer H. 1993. Pinus banksiana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2017, January 3].
Pine, Loblolly Pinus taeda Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus taeda. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 19].
Pine, Longleaf Pinus palustris Carey, Jennifer H. 1992. Pinus palustris. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 19].
Pine, Pitch Pinus rigida Gucker, Corey L. 2007. Pinus rigida. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [ 2016, December 19 ].
Pine, Red Pinus resinosa Hauser, A. Scott. 2008. Pinus resinosa. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 19].
Pine, Table-Mountain Pinus pungens Reeves, Sonja L. 2007. Pinus pungens. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 19].
Pine, Virginia Pinus virginiana Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Pinus virginiana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 19].
Plum, American Prunus americana Fryer, Janet L. 2010. Prunus americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 20].
Poison Ivy, Eastern Toxicodendron radicans
Innes, Robin J. 2012. Toxicodendron radicans, T. rydbergii. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 24].
Poplar, Balsam Populus balsimifera
Steinberg, Peter D. 2001. Populus balsamifera subsp. trichocarpa. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/tree/popbalt/all.html [2016, November 29].
Possumhaw Ilex decidua Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Ilex decidua. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 15].
Privet spp. Ligustrum spp. Munger, Gregory T. 2003. Ligustrum spp. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 14].
Raspberry, Red Rubus idaeus Tirmenstein, D. 1990. Rubus idaeus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, November 20].
Rat, Hispid Cotton Sihmodon hispius Sullivan, Janet. 1995. Sigmodon hispidus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 25].
Redbud Cercis canadensis Sullivan, Janet. 1994. Cercis canadensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 4].
Redcedar, Eastern Juniperus virginiana Anderson, Michelle D. 2003. Juniperus virginiana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 15].
Rose, Multiflora Rosa multiflora Munger, Gregory T. 2002. Rosa multiflora. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 22].
Saltgrass Distichlis spicata Hauser, A. Scott. 2006. Distichlis spicata. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 7].
Sarsparilla, Wild Aralia nudicaulis Pavek, Diane S. 1993. Aralia nudicaulis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, November 30].
Sassafras Sassafras albidum Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Sassafras albidum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 23].
Saw Palmetto Serenoa repens Van Deelen, Timothy R. 1991. Serenoa repens. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 26].
Sawgrass, Jamaican Swamp Cladium jamaicense Uchytil, Ronald J. 1992. Cladium jamaicense. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 5].
Sedge, Water Carex aquaticus Hauser, A. Scott. 2006. Carex aquatilis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 1].
Serviceberry, Common Amelanchier arborea Snyder, S. A. 1992. Amelanchier arborea. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, November 30].
Sheep Sorrell, Common Rumex acetoslla Esser, Lora L. 1995. Rumex acetosella. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Avalable: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/rumace/all.html [2016, December 19].
Sowthistle, Field Sonchus arvensis McWilliams, Jack 2004. Sonchus arvensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 23].
Snowberry, Common Symphoricarpos albus McWilliams, Jack. 2000. Symphoricarpos albus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/symalb/all.html [2016, December 23].
Sourwood Oxydendrum arboreum Coladonato, Milo. 1992. Oxydendrum arboreum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 17].
Spruce, Black Picea mariana Fryer, Janet L. 2014. Picea mariana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/tree/picmar/all.html [2016, December 18].
Spruce, Norway Picea abies Sullivan, Janet. 1994. Picea abies. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 18].
Spruce, Red Picea rubens Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Picea rubens. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 18].
Spruce, White Picea glauca Abrahamson, Ilana. 2015. Picea glauca, white spruce. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/tree/picgla/all.html [2016, December 18].
Spurge, Leafy Euphorbia esula Gucker, Corey L. 2010. Euphorbia esula. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/eupesu/all.html [ 2016, December 8].
Squashberry Viburnum edule Matthews, Robin F. 1992. Viburnum edule. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, November 15].
Squirrel, Eastern Fox Sciurus niger Tesky, Julie L. 1993. Sciurus niger. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 27].
Squirrel, Red Tamiasciurus hudsonicus Sullivan, Janet. 1995. Tamiasciurus hudsonicus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/animals/mammal/tahu/all.html [2016, December 27].
St. Johnswort Hypericum perforatum Zouhar, Kris. 2004. Hypericum perforatum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/hypper/all.html [2016, December 12].
Starthistle, Yellow Centaurea solstitialis Zouhar, Kris. 2002. Centaurea solstitialis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/censol/all.html [2016, November 28].
Strawberry, Woodland Fragaria vesta Munger, Gregory T. 2006. Fragaria vesca. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 9].
Sugarberry Celtis laevigata Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Celtis laevigata. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 3].
Sumac, Fragrant Rhus aromatica Taylor, Jane E. 2004. Rhus aromatica. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 21].
Sumac, Smooth Rhus glabra Johnson, Kathleen A. 2000. Rhus glabra. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 21].
Sumac, Staghorn Rhus typhina Sullivan, Janet. 1994. Rhus typhina. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 21].
Sumac, Winged Rhus copallinum Coladonato, Milo 1992. Rhus copallinum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 21].
Sunflower, Maximilian Helianthus maximiliani Walsh, Roberta A. 1993. Helianthus maximiliani. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 12].
Sweetfern Comptonia peregrina Snyder, S. A. 1993. Comptonia peregrina. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 5].
Switchgrass Panicum virgatum Uchytil, Ronald J. 1993. Panicum virgatum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 17].
Sycamore, American Plantanus occidentalis Sullivan, Janet. 1994. Platanus occidentalis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 18].
Tamarack Larix laricina Uchytil, Ronald J. 1991. Larix laricina. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2017, January 3].
Teaberry, Eastern Gaultheria procumbens Coladonato, Milo. 1994. Gaultheria procumbens. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 9].
Teasel, Fuller’s Dipsacus fullonum Gucker, Corey L. 2009. Dipsacus fullonum, D. laciniatus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 6].
Thistle, Bull Cirsium vulgare Zouhar, Kris. 2002. Cirsium vulgare. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/cirvul/all.html [2016, December 4].
Thistle, Canada Cirsium arvense Zouhar, Kris 2001. Cirsium arvense. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/cirvul/all.html [2016, December 4].
Thistle, Russian Salsola kali Howard, Janet L. 1992. Salsola kali. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 22].
Timothy Phleum pratense Esser, Lora L. 1993. Phleum pratense. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 17].
Vetch, American Vicia americana Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Vicia americana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station,
Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available:
http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/vicame/all.html [2016, December 18].
Viburnum, Mapleleaf Viburnum acerifolium Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Viburnum acerifolium. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, November 15].
Virginia Creeper Parthenocissus quinquefolia Coladoanto, Milo. 1991. Parthenocissus quinquefolia. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, November 29].
Vole, Meadow Microtus pennsylvanicus Sullivan, Janet. 1996. Microtus pennsylvanicus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/animals/mammal/mipe/all.html [2016, December 25].
Vole, Red-backed Myodes rutilus Tesky, Julie L. 1994. Myodes rutilus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 25].
Walnut, Black Juglans nigra Coladonato, Milo. 1991. Juglans nigra. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, November 27].
Wheatgrass, Slender Elymus trachycaulus Howard, Janet L. 1992. Elymus trachycaulus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, November 30].
White-cedar, Northern Thuja occidentalis Carey, Jennifer H. 1993. Thuja occidentalis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, December 24].
Wineberry Rubus phoenincolasius Innes, Robin J. 2009. Rubus phoenicolasius. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).
Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [2016, November 20].
Willow, Black Salix nigra Tesky, Julie L. 1992. Salix nigra. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
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Willow, Pussy Salix discolor Gucker, Corey L. 2007. Salix discolor. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
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Witch-hazel Hamamelis virginiana Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Hamamelis virginiana. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
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Woodfern Dryopteris spp. Munger, Gregory T. 2007. Dryopteris spp. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
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Yaupon Ilex vomitoria Coladonato, Milo 1992. Ilex vomitoria. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
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Yew, Canada Taxus canadensis Sullivan, Janet. 1993. Taxus canadensis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online].
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
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